Bantu Microvariation Digital Archive (BMDA)

This archive is a collection of text, audio, and plots of data from six southern Bantu languages: Northern Sotho, Siswati, Southern Ndebele, Sesotho, Tshivenda and Xitsonga. The dataset is based on sentences collected as part of the Bantu Morphosyntactic Microvariation project in Thohoyandou, Limpopo, South Africa in March 2020. [Project Website] [Publication]


BMDA Archive
PI Seunghun J. Lee (International Christian U & University of Venda)
PI Daisuke Shinagawa (AA-ken)
Assistant Haruka Yamazaki (International Christian University)
Assistant Kiara Johnson (International Christian University)
Assistant Kiho Kato (International Christian University)
Assistant Marin Hirano (International Christian University)
Assistant Michinori Suzuki (International Christian University)
Assistant Rina Furusawa (International Christian University)

ReNeLDA Project
PI Daisuke Shinagawa (AA-ken)
Researcher Crous Hlungwani (University of Venda), Xitsonga
Researcher Eleazar L. Mphasha (University of Venda), Northern Sotho
Researcher Hannah Gibson (University of Essex), Siswati
Researcher Khulisile Judith Nkuna (University of Venda), Siswati
Researcher Kristina Riedel (University of the Free State), Sesotho
Researcher Kyoungwon Jeong (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), Siswati
Researcher Makoto Furumoto (JSPS, University of Essex), Sesotho
Researcher Nthambeleni Netshisaulu (University of Venda), Tshivenda
Researcher Piet Masilela (University of Venda), Southern Ndebele
Researcher Sannah L. Baker (University of Venda), Northern Sotho
Researcher Seunghun J. Lee (International Christian U & University of Venda), Xitsonga and TshiVenda
Researcher Yuko Abe (Lanzhou University), Northern Sotho

Consultant Bafana Mathibela (University of Venda), Southern Ndebele
Consultant Bongane Nyambi (University of Venda), Siswati
Consultant Leften M. Matheere (University of Venda), Northern Sotho
Consultant Maseanakoena Mokoaleli (University of the Free State), Sesotho
Consultant Salphina Mbedzi (University of Venda), Tshivenda
Consultant Sikhumbuzo Sibusiso Khoza (University of Venda), Siswati
Consultant Vicent Maswanganyi (University of Venda), Xitsonga

Logo designer Daehan Won (Studio C-clef)

Funded by

Establishment of a Research Network for Exploring the Linguistic Diversity and Linguistic Dynamism in Africa (ReNeLDA) JSPS's Core-to-Core Program: B. Asia-Africa Science Platforms (2018-2020) [Project Website]

IRC project titled 'Digital archiving of morphosyntactic microvariation in Southern Bantu languages' (IRC) granted by IRC in 2020 FY [IRC-2020-11]


All materials (text, audio files and plots) in this website belongs to IRC or each right holder who has licensed it to IRC.

Creative Common License

The materials published on this site are published under the following Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND).


a. The entire website
Lee, Seunghun J. and Daisuke Shinagawa, 2021, Bantu Microvariation Digital Archive (BMDA), Digital collection managed by Information ResourcesCenter at Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. URL:

b. Publications
Lee, Seunghun J., Yuko Abe, and Daisuke Shinagawa (eds.) (2021) Descriptive materials of morphosyntactic microvariation in Bantu vol. 2: A microparametric survey of morphosyntactic microvariation in Southern Bantu languages. Tokyo: ILCAA, 2021, pp. 428+xiv ISBN: 9784863373433 [LINK]

c. Metadata
Varela Almiron, Patricio (Ed.) (2021) International Christian University Working Papers in Linguistics 13: ReNeLDA . Tokyo, Japan: International Christian University. [LINK]


The contents of this site may be modified, changed, deleted, added, etc. without notice. The web master is not responsible for any direct or indirect loss incurred to users using the information contained in this website.


• Access to the database materials: icu.langdb[at]
• General questions: icu.langdb[at]
• Technical questions: ilcadj1[at]

Revision History

• 2021: Website Release (Home, Languages)